Case Studies

45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W

By Nina Robertson

45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W are the geographical coordinates of a commemorative plaque erected in 1922 on the McGill Campus [Trigger and Pendergast, 1972]. The plaque reads:

Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochlaga. Visited by Jacques Cartier in 1534. Abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses. Each contained several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing.

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Chief Claude Jeannotte, Migmawei Mawiomi Assembly

This BAPE process is a mere public process and does not constitute consultation and accommodation at law. Our attendance here is completely without prejudice to our rights to proper consultation and accommodation. The Government of Quebec has a clear legal obligation in accordance with its legal duty of honour to consult and accommodate Mi’gmaq Rights, Title and Treaties, including in relation to these two projects. It has not done so, even though the Québec Government has developed an interim guide for consulting aboriginal communities.

Colonial Policies Impacting Inuit Communities in Canada

By Brianna Stevenson

Like all Indigenous communities in Canada, the Inuit have had unique colonial experiences with federal policies and have been impacted in complex and challenging ways through this relationship. Unfortunately, the Canadian government still has a tendency to enact initiatives intended more to develop the political or economic prosperity of the Canadian public rather than to develop the autonomy of these affected communities. Read More

Relocation to the High Arctic: From Port Harrison to Grise Fiord in the 1950s

By Rebekah Selman

In the 1950s, 19 Inuit families were relocated from Port Harrison to Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord. Many of these families were separated from each other. The Inuit were given promises that were not fulfilled. The Canadian Government had promised a surplus of game for hunting, as well as supplies and shelter when they arrived (George, 2010; Kuschk, 2010; Nunavut Tunngavik Inc., 2010). It is said to have been reported in the Montreal Gazette in 1954 that new houses were built in the High Arctic (Marcus, 1995). Read More

Innus Against the Val Jalbert Mini Power Plant

By  Alana-Kateri La Rosa Dancoste

In 2007, the Conseil des Montagnais du Lac-Saint-Jean, the Domaine-du-Roy MRC and the Maria-Chapdelaine MRC finalized a partnership agreement focused on energy development in the region. The Société de l’énergie communautaire du Lac-Saint-Jean aimed to ‘’maximize local benefit of projects that respect the values and interests of the settings in which they are established’’. Read More

Storytelling in Tóta tánon Ohkwá:ri

By Nathalie Montero Zubieta

Political, social and cultural infrastructures build and influence social interactions by the internalization of the dominant cultures’ practices (Bourdieu 1980, 88-89). This theory of practice demonstrates the reproduction and re-forming of colonization practices in Indigenous identities through the education system. In Canada, The Truth and Reconciliation Commission pinpointed the Indigenous cultural genocide occurred under the residential schools period (TRC, 2015, page 5). Read More

Opitciwan and the Plan Nord: Forestry, Protests, and Declarations of Sovereignty

By Sarah Amira Aldridge

The Atikamekw Nation includes Manawan, Wemotaci, and Opitciwan. The three communities are located around the Upper Sainte-Maurice River and in the Valley of Quebec. Within the context of the Plan Nord, Opitciwan is the only Atikamekw Community that is above the infamous 49th parallel. The economic interest the Plan Nord has in seizing this resourceful geographical area is the forestry industry. Sawmills in and around Opitciwan have been in development since the 1800’s and by the early 1900’s it had been established as a paper and pulp mill community. Read More

Indigenous Education

By Nathalie Montero Zubieta

Indigenous Knowledge is an inter-generational knowledge transmission that has been interrupted with the assimilation process of the Indian Act’s residential schools (Aquash 2013, page 29). The repercussions of this interruption is seen on Indigenous identities but it also causes a mandatory shift towards modernisation, as an opposition to tradition. Under the Indian Act, the federal government is responsible of the Indigenous education financing but was also responsible of the construction, the administration and the management of aboriginal education until the end of the 1970s (Hot 2010, 9-10). Read More

Innu Nation Approche Commune

By Kelly Marquis

In Québec, the Innu mainly reside in the following nine communities: Mashteuiatsh, Essipit, Betsiamites, Uashat-Maliotenam, Mingan (Ekuanitshit), Natashquan (Nutashkuan), La Romaine (Unamen Shipu), Pakuashipi (Pakua Shipu), Matimekosh (Schefferville). “Seven are spread out along the St. Lawrence River, from Tadoussac up to the Labrador border. The other two are located respectively on the edge of Lac Saint-Jean and at the heart of the Far North, on the boundary with Labrador” (Government of Québec, 2010). The Boreal Forest is their ancestral territory, and traditionally, they were nomadic peoples living off of hunting and gathering. Today, “the Innu Nation numbers just over 16,000 people, making it the most populous Aboriginal Nation in Québec” (Government of Québec, 2010). Read More

Cree and Naskapi Nations

By Charlène Tshibola, Danie Lavoie, Kaiza Graham, Raphaëlle Bigras-Burrogano

The Repercussions of the Plan Nord

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Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach The Naskapi flag depicts multiple symbols important to the Naskapi. The caribou is located in the west, where the caribou migrate in fall, a time of celebration for the Naskapi.

For more than a hundred years, up until 1956, the Naskapi people have to been forced to move from place to place in order to serve the economic agenda of colonizers. The discovery of the iron ore led to the forced sedentarization of the Naskapi people. In 1956, they walked 400 miles from Fort Chimo to relocate in Scheffervile, where many were told they would find housing, education, healthcare and employment (Hess, E.A. 1984). Read More