45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W

By Nina Robertson

45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W are the geographical coordinates of a commemorative plaque erected in 1922 on the McGill Campus [Trigger and Pendergast, 1972]. The plaque reads:

Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochlaga. Visited by Jacques Cartier in 1534. Abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses. Each contained several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing.

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Innus Against the Val Jalbert Mini Power Plant

By  Alana-Kateri La Rosa Dancoste

In 2007, the Conseil des Montagnais du Lac-Saint-Jean, the Domaine-du-Roy MRC and the Maria-Chapdelaine MRC finalized a partnership agreement focused on energy development in the region. The Société de l’énergie communautaire du Lac-Saint-Jean aimed to ‘’maximize local benefit of projects that respect the values and interests of the settings in which they are established’’. Read More

Opitciwan and the Plan Nord: Forestry, Protests, and Declarations of Sovereignty

By Sarah Amira Aldridge

The Atikamekw Nation includes Manawan, Wemotaci, and Opitciwan. The three communities are located around the Upper Sainte-Maurice River and in the Valley of Quebec. Within the context of the Plan Nord, Opitciwan is the only Atikamekw Community that is above the infamous 49th parallel. The economic interest the Plan Nord has in seizing this resourceful geographical area is the forestry industry. Sawmills in and around Opitciwan have been in development since the 1800’s and by the early 1900’s it had been established as a paper and pulp mill community. Read More

Innu Nation Approche Commune

By Kelly Marquis

In Québec, the Innu mainly reside in the following nine communities: Mashteuiatsh, Essipit, Betsiamites, Uashat-Maliotenam, Mingan (Ekuanitshit), Natashquan (Nutashkuan), La Romaine (Unamen Shipu), Pakuashipi (Pakua Shipu), Matimekosh (Schefferville). “Seven are spread out along the St. Lawrence River, from Tadoussac up to the Labrador border. The other two are located respectively on the edge of Lac Saint-Jean and at the heart of the Far North, on the boundary with Labrador” (Government of Québec, 2010). The Boreal Forest is their ancestral territory, and traditionally, they were nomadic peoples living off of hunting and gathering. Today, “the Innu Nation numbers just over 16,000 people, making it the most populous Aboriginal Nation in Québec” (Government of Québec, 2010). Read More

Cree and Naskapi Nations

By Charlène Tshibola, Danie Lavoie, Kaiza Graham, Raphaëlle Bigras-Burrogano

The Repercussions of the Plan Nord

Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach The Naskapi flag depicts multiple symbols important to the Naskapi. The caribou is located in the west, where the caribou migrate in fall, a time of celebration for the Naskapi.

For more than a hundred years, up until 1956, the Naskapi people have to been forced to move from place to place in order to serve the economic agenda of colonizers. The discovery of the iron ore led to the forced sedentarization of the Naskapi people. In 1956, they walked 400 miles from Fort Chimo to relocate in Scheffervile, where many were told they would find housing, education, healthcare and employment (Hess, E.A. 1984). Read More

The Atikamekw Nation

By Kahawihson Horne

If one were to adequately explain the complicated situation in which the Atikamekw people of central Quebec currently find themselves, they would first have to provide their audience with an understanding of how these peoples (and for that matter, many other First Nation’s Peoples) see themselves in relation to the traditional territories on which their history has gradually unfolded (and will hopefully continue to do so) over the course of millennia. Read More

Forestry and the Baril-Moses Agreement

By Charlène Tshibola, Danie Lavoie, Kaiza Graham, Raphaëlle Bigras-Burrogano

baril moses2Forestry in Cree territory got to a point where massive areas where being clear-cut, leading to the displacement of wildlife and a disruption of hunting. In response, the Cree nation of Eeyou Istchee sought to come to an agreement with Quebec where the forestry industry could still exist without interfering with the Cree’s hunting, fishing and trapping practices. Read More

Cree land claims

By Charlène Tshibola, Danie Lavoie, Kaiza Graham, Raphaëlle Bigras-Burrogano

The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement

In 1975, an agreement with the Cree and Inuit nations was signed, this came to be known as the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA). The other parties who signed the agreement were the federal and provincial government, the James Bay Development Corporation, the James Bay Energy Corporation and Hydro Quebec (Government of Canada, 2010, p.2). Read More

Plan Nunavik and the Parnasimautik Consultations

By Julie Deslile

Plan Nunavik was created in 2012 as a response to Quebec’s Plan Nord. Developed by the Makivik Corporation and the Kativik Regional Government of Nunavik, Plan Nunavik is a document which describes the current situation and concerns regarding housing, health, education, access to territory, mining, energy, tourism, bio-food, wildlife, culture and identity, telecommunications and community development. Read More