45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W

By Nina Robertson

45°30’12.7″N 73°34’30.2″W are the geographical coordinates of a commemorative plaque erected in 1922 on the McGill Campus [Trigger and Pendergast, 1972]. The plaque reads:

Near here was the site of the fortified town of Hochlaga. Visited by Jacques Cartier in 1534. Abandoned before 1600. It contained fifty large houses. Each contained several families who subsisted by cultivation and fishing.

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Opitciwan and the Plan Nord: Forestry, Protests, and Declarations of Sovereignty

By Sarah Amira Aldridge

The Atikamekw Nation includes Manawan, Wemotaci, and Opitciwan. The three communities are located around the Upper Sainte-Maurice River and in the Valley of Quebec. Within the context of the Plan Nord, Opitciwan is the only Atikamekw Community that is above the infamous 49th parallel. The economic interest the Plan Nord has in seizing this resourceful geographical area is the forestry industry. Sawmills in and around Opitciwan have been in development since the 1800’s and by the early 1900’s it had been established as a paper and pulp mill community. Read More

The Atikamekw Nation

By Kahawihson Horne

If one were to adequately explain the complicated situation in which the Atikamekw people of central Quebec currently find themselves, they would first have to provide their audience with an understanding of how these peoples (and for that matter, many other First Nation’s Peoples) see themselves in relation to the traditional territories on which their history has gradually unfolded (and will hopefully continue to do so) over the course of millennia. Read More

Government Action Plans

The Project of a Generation: Plan Nord 2011

by Amanda Claudia Bos & Lotte Frencken

The Plan Nord is a development strategy launched by the Government of Québec in 2011, which covers the territory north of the 49th parallel, equivalent to 72% of Québec’s area. It aims to create economic returns and increase the labour market for a population of over 120 000 people, including 40 000 Aboriginals, while respecting the communities residing this territory. Plan Nord’s purpose has been to open up “new horizons to future generations of Quebecers and [to] offer the world the example of modern, sustainable, harmonious development.” (Plan Nord 2011, 7) Read More

Innu Protest at Salon Plan Nord

By Shiann Wahéhshon Whitebean

On April 21, 2012, a protest was held at Palais de Congrés in Montreal where the Salon du Plan Nord (Plan Nord Job Fair) took place (Montreal Gazette Videos, 2012). At this time there were daily protests against tuition hikes being held by Montreal students, and as a result there were hundreds of protestors on the premises. A bus load of Innu came from Uashat mak Mani-Utenam to protest the Charest Government’s Plan Nord and were joined by Mohawks from Kahnawá:ke Read More

Plan Nunavik and the Parnasimautik Consultations

By Julie Deslile

Plan Nunavik was created in 2012 as a response to Quebec’s Plan Nord. Developed by the Makivik Corporation and the Kativik Regional Government of Nunavik, Plan Nunavik is a document which describes the current situation and concerns regarding housing, health, education, access to territory, mining, energy, tourism, bio-food, wildlife, culture and identity, telecommunications and community development. Read More

Women & Plan Nord: For Equality in Northern Development

By Sarah Amira Aldridge

In taking an in-depth analysis into the third chapter of “Women and Plan Nord: for Equality in Northern Development” the interconnectedness between gender and culture is exposed. Specifically in sections 3.1.5-3.2.2, the lack of consultation between representatives of the Plan Nord and Indigenous women above and below the 49th parallel is evidence of the institutionalization of sexism in Canada. Read More

Liquefied Natural Gas and Stornoway Project

By Ramnik Riar & Sara Serravalle

It is often forgotten that Hydro-Quebec is not the only source of energy in Quebec. In fact, thirty-eight percent of the province’s energy consumption consists of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and heating oil (QOGA, 2015). Natural gas is of the most energy efficient and cleanest type of fuel. However, due to a large increase in production of LNG within the United States, Read More